Following are the references found throughout this site.


Portions of this site are from Shamanism for the Age of Science: Awakening the Energy Body by Kenneth Smith. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions/Bear & Co., 2011.

        - Updates to the published book

References are listed by Section:


1. American Heritage College Dictionary, 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000, 139.

2. Alexander Lowen, Bioenergetics. New York: Penguin Arkana, 1994; and Fred P. Gallo, Energy Psychology: Explorations at the Interface of Energy, Cognition, Behavior, and Health. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1999.

3. James Oschman, Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingston Press, 2000.

4. Milo Wolff, e-mail correspondence, October 14 and 15, 2005.

5. Robert M. Berne, Matthew N. Levy, Bruce M. Koeppen, and Bruce A. Stanton, eds., Physiology, 4thed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1998, 653.

6. Michael S. Gazzaniga, Richard B. Ivry, George R. Mangun, with Megan S. Steven. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, Third Edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2009, 118.

7. Robert O. Becker and Gary Selden, The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life. New York: William Morrow, 1985; and Oschman, Energy Medicine, 61.

8. Ted J. Kaptchuk, The Web That Has No Weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 2000, 14.

9. World Health Organization, Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature, 2nded. WHO Regional Office, Manila, 1993.

10. Kaptchuk, Web, 41–74.

11. Ibid, 75-104.

12. K.P. Schlebusch, W. Maric-Oehler, and F.A. Popp, “Biophotonics in the Infrared Spectral Range Reveal Acupuncture Meridian Structure of Body," The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Vol. 11, No. 1, 2005): 171-173; and studies conducted by Joie Jones, Professor of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, and subsequent conversation, November 2008.

13. Caroline Myss, Anatomy of the Spirit: The Seven Stages of Power and Healing. New York: Harmony Books, 1996, 69.

14. Nadi (yoga),, August 14, 2010.

15. Rollin McCraty, The Energetic Heart: Bioelectromagnetic Interactions Within and Between People. Boulder Creek, Calif.: Institute of HeartMath, 2003, 3-6.

16. Carlos Castaneda, The Fire from Within. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984, 157–159.

17. Ibid., 108; and Carlos Castaneda, The Power of Silence. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987, xv-xvi.

18. James Oschman, “Energy and the Healing Response,” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (9, 2005), 3–15.

19. Barbara Ann Brennan, Hands of Light: A Guide to Healing Through the Human Energy Field. New York: Bantam, 1987; and personal observations.

20. James Oschman, Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis (Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingston Press, 2000), 232; and James L. Oschman and Nora Oschman, "Somatic Recall," Massage Therapy Journal (Vol. 34, No. 3, Summer 1995): 36-45, 111-116.

21. Oschman and Oschman, "Somatic Recall," 4-11.

22. Siegel, The Developing Mind, 24, 60-63; Norman Doige. The Brain that Changes Itself (New York: Viking, 2007), 219-220; and Eric R. Kandel. In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind (New York: W.W. Norton &Co., 2006), 212-218; and Oschman and Oschman, "Somatic Recall," 36-45, 111-116..

23. Castaneda, The Fire from Within, 50.

24. Bruce Lipton, The Biology of Belief. Santa Rosa, Calif.: Elite Books, 2005, 15–27, 49–73.

25. Lipton, Biology of Belief, 26–27; and Lionel R. Milgrom, “Entanglement, Knowledge, and Their Possible Effects on the Outcomes of Blinded Trials of Homeopathic Provings,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Vol. 12, No. 3, 2006), 271–279.

26. Oschman, Energy Medicine, 175–186, 201–203.

27. Castaneda, The Fire from Within, 49, 57.



28. Susan Blackmore, Consciousness: An Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 2.

29. Violet S. de Laslo, ed., R. F. C. Hull, trans., The Basic Writings of C. G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990, 41–43.

30. Ibid., 56.

31. Ibid., 59.

32. Ibid., 43, 57, 140.

33. Ibid., 59, 122.

34. Castaneda, The Power of Silence, 166, 244; Blackmore, Consciousness, 13; and Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy, 198.

35. Castaneda, The Fire from Within, 83.

36. Richard Gerber, Vibrational Medicine, Third Edition. Rochester, Vt.: Bear & Co., 2001, 17.

37. Martin Heidegger, Trans., John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson, Being and Time. HarperSanFrancisco, 1962, 22–23.

38. Ibid., 78, 415–418.

39. Abraham H. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being, 3rd ed.New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999, 85–94.

40. Maslow, Psychology of Being, 169.

41. Ibid., 170, 222.



42. Andrew M. Colman, A Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 140.

43. Carlos Castaneda, Tales of Power. New York: Washington Square, 1974,  95–96.

44. Oschman and Oschman, "Somatic Recall," 36-45, 111-116.

45. Oschman, Energy Medicine, 29.

46. Castaneda, Tales of Power, 95.

47. Arthur Schopenhauer, E. F. J. Payne, ed., The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 1, 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.

48. IBS Research Update web site,, September 22, 2006.

49. Arthur S. Reber and Emily Reber, eds., The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, 3rd ed. (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 570.

50. Arthur J. Deikman, “Deautomatization and the Mystic Experience,” Charles T. Tart, ed., Altered States of Consciousness, rev ed. HarperSanFrancisco, 1990, 34–57.

51. Castaneda, The Power of Silence, 6–7.



52. Neil A. Stillings, Steven E. Weisler, Christopher H. Chase, Mark H. Feinstein, Jay L. Garfield, and Edwina L. Rissland, Cognitive Science, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995, 55–63.
53. Ted J. Kaptchuk, The Web That Has No Weaver: Understanding Chinese Medicine (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 2000), 14.

54. Chakra,, August 27, 2008; and Libby Barnett and Maggie Chambers with Susan Davidson, Reiki Energy Medicine (Rochester, Vt.: Healing Arts Press, 1996), 20–21.

55. Samuel Hahnemann, Wenda Brewster O’Reilly, ed., Organon of the Medical Art (Palo Alto, Calif.: Birdcage Books, 1996), 4, 235–237.

56. “The Royal Rife Story,”, September 30, 2006.

57. Dr. Korotkov Co. web site,, August 18, 2007.

58. PIP Bio Imaging web site,, September 12, 2007; The Centre for Biofield Sciences web site,, September 15, 2007; and presentation by Brian Dailey, MD, at a conference sponsored by The Institute for Therapeutic Discovery, September 8, 2007.

59. University of Colorado at Colorado Springs web site,, August 1, 2005.

60. James Oschman, “Energy and the Healing Response,” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (9, 2005): 3–15.

61. Robert Monroe, Journeys Out of the Body. New York: Doubleday, 1971.

62. For more information on The Monroe Institute, please visit their web site,

63. Sally P. Springer and Georg Deutsch, Left Brain, Right Brain, 4th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1993, 1–17, 272.

64. F. Holmes Atwater, “The Hemi-Sync® Process,” The Monroe Institute Research Division, June 1999.

65. Richard Gerber, MD. Vibrational Medicine. Rochester, VT: Bear & Co., 2001, 223-230.



66. Steven Strogatz, Sync: The Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order. New York: Hyperian, 2003, 103-104.

67. Charles T. Tart, States of Consciousness. Lincoln, Neb.:, Inc., 2000, 5–9.

68. Blackmore, Consciousness, 248.

69. Jack Kornfield, A Path with Heart: A Guide through the Perils and Promises of Spiritual Life. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.

70. Castaneda, Ixtlan, 26–35.


Learning Skills

71. Arthur J. Deikman, “Deautomatization and the Mystic Experience,” Tart, ed., Altered States of Consciousness, 34–57.

72. Donald B. Calne, Within Reason: Rationality and Human Behavior. New York: Pantheon Books, 1999, 243.

73. Fabrizio Benedetti, et al. "Neurobiological Mechanisms of the Placebo Effect." The Journal of Neuroscience (Vol. 25, No. 45, November 9, 2005), 10390-10402.

74. Tart, States of Consciousness, 117.

75. Castaneda, Ixtlan, 18–19; and Eagle Feather, Toltec Dreaming, 175–176.

76. Oschman, Energy Medicine, 111–115; and Barnett and Chambers, Reiki, 43.

77. Taisha Abelar, The Sorcerer’s Crossing: A Woman’s Journey (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1992), 42–65; Castaneda, Eagle’s Gift, 285–289; Eagle Feather, Toltec Dreaming, 185–188; and Victor Sanchez, The Toltec Path of Recapitulation: Healing Your Past to Free Your Soul (Rochester, Vt.: Bear & Company, 2001).

78. Tart, Open Mind, 187-188.



1. Lines drawings of the energy body by David Brown and modified by Jennifer Geib.

2. Modern acupuncture chart is used with the kind permission of Devatara J. Holman, Marin Oriental Medicine, Sausalito, California,

3. Cellular matrix and inference illustrations are used with the kind permission of James Oschman.

4. Cornerstones of Perception from Norbert Classen, Das Wissen der Tolteken (Knowledge of the Toltecs) by Norbert Classen. Freiburg, Germany: Hans-Nietsch-Verlag, 2002.

5. Other images are courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.


Updates to Shamanism for the Age of Science

79. Prashant Satish Chikramane, et al, "Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective," Homeopathy (99, 2010): 231-242.

80. R Ursin, et al, "Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km," Nature Physics (3, July 2007): 481-486.

81. Vlatko Vedral, "Living in a Quantum World," Scientific American (June 2011): 38-43.


Site construction courtesy of Jennifer Geib.